Course: Advanced Wetlands Ecology, WIS 6444

Dr. Wiley Kitchens
Courtesy Professor
Wildlife Ecology and Conservation
Course Webpage

TA Louise Venne

Maximum class size 12 students
Requirements: Consent of the instructor, Wetlands ecology (EES 6308c)
Course Schedule: Fall
Monday 9-11:30 am or Friday 1:00 – 3:30 pm

Course Description:
This course examines the major wetland systems in North America. The goal is to develop a comprehensive understanding of wetland systems through an individual and comparative examination of the following:

Particular emphasis will be placed on issues associated with competing demands for the use of wetlands and their resources. The course will utilize the community profile series published by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and selected scientific publications as the primary information source for lecture materials. Students will be required to develop summations for assigned profiles and other significant referenced materials and present these reviews to the class. The responsible student and the instructor will lead a class discussion on the appropriate topic. The course includes required field trips: 2 day trips to local systems, and 2 long weekend multi-night trips. The course will require wetlands ecology as a prerequisite and will be designed as a companion or follow-up course to wetland ecology.

The course is designed to be a four hour course. Admission is for graduate students only. The grading structure is as follows:

class participation 10%
lecture presentation, preparation 20%
final exam 70%

August 22 - First class meeting (Explanation of syllabus and expectations-)
Scheduling meeting times to accommodate student schedules.
Overview of wetland systems of the Southeast (Kitchens)
Assignment of reading and presentation tasks

August 29 - Presentation and discussions Ripparian habits and Bottomland hardwood forests.

September 5 - Labor Day

September 12 - Salt marshes of SE.
The Ecology of Intertidal Flats of North Carolina (Wiley)
Tidal Salt Marshes of the Southeastern Atlantic Coast
Ecology of Tidal Freshwater Marshes of the U.S. East Coast

September 26 - Field trip (weekend) Four-Hole Swamp, Congaree Swamp, Savannah NWR, North Inlet, SC

October 3 - Mangroves and Sundarbans
The Ecology of Mangroves of South Florida
Mangroves of Ganges Delta

October 10 - Delta marshes, Chenier Plains of LA coast
Ecology of Delta Marshes of Coastal Louisiana
Characterization of Chenier Plains Ecosystem

October 17 - Field Trip S. FL Ecosystems- Big Cypress, WCA 3A, Turner River
The South Florida Environment
Other papers, Loveless/Fredrick/Kitchens/Zweig

October 24 - Okavango Delta, Pantanal

October 31 - Isolated/ Depressional Wetlands Overview
Ecology of Carolina Bays and Pocosins
Readings from Odum/Ewel on Cypress Domes

November 7 - Okefenokee Swamp lecture and Field trip

November 14 - Wet pine Savannah, Field trip
Mississippi Sand Hill Crane NWR
Carolina Bays

November 21 - Coastal Hydric hammocks, Cypress Domes
The Ecology of Hydric Hammocks

November 28 - Peatlands, Boreal wetlands
Ecology of the Patterned Boreal Peatlands of Northern Minnesota
Ecology of Tundra Ponds of the Arctic Coastal Plain

December 5 - Prairie Pothole Region, Playa wetlands, Vernal pools

December 16 - Final Exam

General Supplementary Reading

Baldwin, A. H., K. L. McKee, and I. A. Mendelsohn. 1996. The influence of vegetation, salinity, and inundation on seed banks of oligohaline coastal marshes. American Journal of Botany 83:470-479.

Baumann, R. H., and R. E. Turner. 1990. Direct impacts of outer continental shelf activities on wetland loss in the Central Gulf of Mexico. Environmental Geology and Water Resources 15:189-198.

Bayley, P. B. 1995. Understanding large river-floodplain ecosystems. BioScience 45:153-158.

Bertness, M. D. 1992. The ecology of a New England salt marsh. American Scientist 80:260-268.

Bolin, E. G., L. H. Smith, and H. L. Scramm, Jr. 1989. Playa lakes: Prairie wetlands of the Southern High Plains. BioScience 39:615-623.

Bowden, W. B. 1984. Nitrogen and phosphorous in the sediments of a tidal freshwater marsh in Massachusetts SA). Estuaries 7:108-118.

Bowden, W. B., C. J. Vorosmarty, J. T. Morris, B. J. Peterson, J. E. Hobbie, P. A. Steudler, and B. Moore. 1991.

Transport and processing of nitrogen in a tidal freshwater wetland. Water Resources Research 27:389-408.

Bridgham, S. D., S. P. Faulkner, and C. J. Richardson. 1991. Steel rod oxidation as a hydrologic indicator in wetland soils. Soil Science Society of America Journal 55:856-862.

Brinson, M. M. 1993b. Changes in the functioning of wetlands along environmental gradients. Wetlands 13:65-64.

Childers, D. L., H. N. McKellar, Jr., R. Dame, F. Sklar, and E. Blood. 1993. A dynamic nutrient budget of

subsystem interactions in a salt marsh estuary. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 36:105-131.

Childers, D. L., J. W. Day, Jr., and H. N. McKellar, Jr. 2000. Twenty more years of marsh and estuarine flux studies: Revisiting Nixon (1980). In M. P. Weinstein and D. A. Kreeger, eds. International Synposium: Concepts and Controversies in Tidal Marsh Ecology. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, pp. 389-421.

Conner, W. H. and J. W. Day, Jr. 1982. The ecology of forested wetlands in the D. F. Whigham, eds. Wetlands: Ecology and Management. National Institute of Ecology and International Scientific Publications, Jaipur, India, pp. 69-87.

Conner, W. H. and M. A. Buford. 1998. Southern deepwater swamps. In M. G. Messina and W. H. Conner, eds. Southern Forested Wetlands: Ecology and Management. Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton, FL, pp. 263-289.

Cypert, E. 1972. The origin of houses in the Okefenokee prairies. American Midland Naturalists 66:485-503.

Dahl, T. E. 1990. Wetlands Losses in the United States, 1780s to 1980s. U.S. Department of Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington, DC. 21 pp.

Dahl, T. E. and C. E. Johnson. 1991. Wetlands Status and Trends in the Conterminous United States Mid-1970s to Mid-1980s. U.S. Department of Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington, DC. 28 pp.

Dahm, C. N., ed. 1995. Kissimmee River Restoration. Special Issue of Restoration Ecology 3:145-283.

Damman, A. W. H. 1986. Hydrology, development, and biogeochemistry of ombrogenous peat bogs with special reference to nutrient relocation in a western Newfoundland bog. Canadian Journal of Botany 64:384-394.

Damman, A. W. H. and T. W. French. 1987. The Ecology of Peat Bogs of the Glaciated Northeastern United States: A Community Profile. Biological Report 85(7.16), U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington, DC. 100 pp.

Davis, S. M. and J. C. Ogden, eds. 1994. Everglades: The Ecosystem and Its Restoration. St. Lucie Press, Delray Beach, FL. 826 pp.

Day, J. W., Jr., W. G. Smith, P. Wagner, and W. Stowe. 1973. Community Structure and Carbon Budget in a Salt Marsh and Shallow Bay Estuarine System in Louisiana. Sea Grant Publication LSU-SG-72-04, Center for Wetland Resources, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, 30 pp.

Deegan, L. A., J. E. Hughes, and R. A. Rountree. 2000. Salt marsh ecosystem support of marine transient species. In M. P. Weinstein and D. A. Kreeger, eds. International Symposium: Concepts and Controversies in Tidal Marsh Ecology. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, pp. 331-363.

Delaune, R. D. and C. W. Lindau. 1990. Fate of added 15N labelled nitrogen in a Sagittaria lancifolia L. Gulf Coast marsh. Journal of Freshwater Ecology 5:429-431.

Dortch, M. S. 1996. Removal of solids, nitrogen, and phosphorus in the Catche River wetland. Wetlands 16:358-365.

Doss, P. K. 1993. The nature of a dynamic water table in a system of non-tidal, freshwater coastal wetlands. Journal of Hydrology 141:107-126.

Doss, P. K. 1995. Physical-hydrogeologic processes in wetlands. Natural Areas Journal 15:216-266.

Ewel, K. C. and H. T. Odum, eds. 1984. Cypress Swamps. University Presses of Florida, Gainesville. 472 pp.

Faber, P. A., E. Keller, A. Sands, and B. M. Masser. 1989. The Ecology of Riparian Habitats of the Southern California Coastal Region: A community Profile. Biological Report 85(7.27), U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington, DC. 152 pp.

Faulkner, S. P., W. H. Patrick, Jr., and R. P. Gambrell. 1989. Field techniques for measuring wetland soil parameters. Soil Science Society of America Journal 53:883-890.

Fetherston, K. L., R. J. Naiman, and R. E. Bilby. 1995. Large woody debris, physical processes, and riparian forest development in montane river networks of the Pacific Northwest. Geomorphology 13:133-144.

Flores-Verdugo, F., J. W. Day, Jr. and R. Briseno-Duenas. 1987. Structure, litter fall, decomposition, and detritus dynamics of mangroves in a Mexican coastal lagoon with an ephemeral inlet. Marine Ecology-Progress Series 35:83-90.

Friedman, J. M., M. L. Scott, and D. T. Patten, eds. 1998a. Semiarid Riparian Ecosystems. Special Issue of Wetlands 18:497-696.

Gunderson, L. H. and W. T. Loftus. 1993. The Everglades. In W. H. Martin, S. G. Boyce and A. C. E. Echternacht, eds. Biodiversity of the Southeastern United States: Lowland Terrestrial Communities. John Wiley & Sons, New York, pp. 199-255.

Hall, H. D., and V. W. Lambou. 1990. The ecological significance to fisheries of bottomland hardwood ecosystems: Values, detrimental impacts, and assessment: The report of the fisheries workgroup. In J. G. Gosselink, L. C. Lee and T. A. Muir, eds. Ecological Processes and Cumulative Impacts: Illustrated by Bottomland Hardwood Wetland Ecosystems. Lewis Publishers, Chelsea, MI, pp. 481-531.

Hamilton, S. K., S. J. Sippel and J. M. Melack. 1996. Inundation patterns in the Pantanal Wetrland of South America determined from passive microwave remote sensing. Archiv für Hydrobiologie 137:1-23.

Hedmon, C. W., D. Van Lear and W. T. Swank. 1996. Instream large woody debris loading and riparian forest seral stage associations in the southern Appalachian Mountains. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 26:1218-1227.

Johnson, B. L., W. B. Richardson and T. J. Naimo. 1995. Past, present, and future concepts in large river ecology. BioScience 45:134-141.

Junk, W. J., P. B. Bayley and R. E. Sparks. 1989. The flood pulse concept in river-floodplain systems. In D. P. Dodge, ed. Proceedings of the International Large River Symposium. Special Issue of Journal of Canadian Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 106:11-127.

Koch, M. S. and K. R. Reddy. 1992. Distribution of soil and plant nutrients along a trophic gradient in the Florida Everglades. Soil Science Society of America Journal 56:1492-1499.

LaBaugh, J. W., T. C. Winter and D. O. Rosenberry. 1998. Hydrologic functions of prairie wetlands. Great Plains Research 8:17-37.

Lide, R. F., V. G. Meentemeyer, J. E. Pinder and L. M. Beatty. 1995. Hydrology of a Carolina Bay located on the Upper Coastal Plain of western South Carolina. Wetlands 15:47-57.

Megonigal, J. P., W. H. Conner, S. Kroeger and R. R. Sharitz. 1997. Aboveground production in southeastern floodplain forests: A test of the subsidy-stress hypothesis. Ecology 78:370-384.

Newman, S., J. B. Grace and J. W. Kooebel. 1996. The effects of nutrients and hydroperiod on mixtures of Typha

domingensis, Cladium jamaicense, and Eleocharis interstincta: Implications for Everglades restoration. Ecological Applications 6:774-783.

Nyman, J. A., R. D. Delaune and W. H. Patrick, Jr. 1990. Wetland soil formation in the rapidly subsiding Mississippi River Deltaic Plain: Mineral and organic matter relationships. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 31:57-69.

Odum, E. P. 2000. Tidal marshes as outwelling/pulsing systems. In M. P. Weinstein and D. A. Kreeger, eds. International Symposium: Concepts and Controversies in Tidal Marsh Ecology. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands (in press).

Odum, W. E., E. P. Odum and H. T. Odum. 1995. Nature=s pulsing paradigm. Estuaries 18:547-555.

Pearlstine, L., H. McKellar and W. Kitchens. 1985. Modelling the impacts of a river diversion on bottomland forest communities in the Santee River floodplain, South Carolina. Ecological Modelling 29:283-302.

Perry, J. E. and C. H. Hershner. 1999. Temporal changes in the vegetation pattern in a tidal freshwater marsh. Wetlands 19:90-99.

Post, R. A. 1996. Functional Profile of Black Spruce Wetlands in Alaska. EPA-910/R-96-006, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Seattle. 170 pp.

Rivers, J. D., D. I. Siegel, L. S. Chasar, J. P. Chanton, P. H. Glaser, N. T. Roulet, and J. M. McKenzie. 1998. A stochastic appraisal of the annual carbon budget of a large circumboreal peatland, Rapid River Watershed, northern Minnesota. Global Biogeochemic Cycles 12:715-727.

Roberts, L. 1993. Wetlands trading is a loser=s game, say ecologists. Science 260:1890-1892.

Sasser, C. E., J. M. Visser, D. E. Evers and J. G. Gosselink. 1995. The role of environmental variables on interannual variation in species composition and biomass in a subtropical minerotrophic floating marsh. Canadian Journal of Botany 73:413-424.

Sasser, C. E., J. G. Gosselink, E. M. Swenson, C. M. Swarzenski and N. C. Leibowitz. 1996. Vegetation, substrate and hydrology in floating marshes in the Mississippi River delta plain wetlands, USA. Vegetatio 122:129-142.

Schubel, J. R. and D. W. Pritchard. 1990. Great Lakes estuaries - Phooey. Estuaries 13:508-509.

Shaffer, G. W., C. E. Sasser, J. G. Gosselink and M. Rejmanek. 1992. Vegetation dynamics in the emergent Atchafalaya delta, Louisiana, USA. Journal of Ecology 80.

Shugart, H. H., T. M. Smith and W. M. Post. 1992. The potential for application of individual-ased simulation models for assessing the effects of global change. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 23:15-38.

Skaggs, R. W., J. W. Gilliam, R. O. Evans and J. E. Parsons. 1994. Characterization and evaluation of proposed hydrologic criteria for wetlands. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation 49:501-510.

Smith, K. J., G. L. Taghon and K. W. Able. 2000. Trophic linkages in marshes: Ontogenetic changes in diet for young-of-the-year mummichog, Fundulus heteroclitus. In M. Weinstein and D. A. Kreeger, eds. International Symposium: Concepts and Controversies in Tidal Marsh Ecology. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, pp. 221-236.

Swarzenski, C., E. M. Swenson, C. E. Sasser and J. G. Gosselink. 1991. Marsh mat flotation in the Louisiana Delta Plain. Journal of Ecology 79:999-1011.

Valiela, I. And J. M. Teal. 1979. The nitrogen budget of a salt marsh ecosystem. Nature 280:652-656.

van der Valk, A. G. 1981. Succession in wetlands: A Gleasonian approach. Ecology 62:688-696.

Vannote, R. L., G. W. Minshall, K. W. Cummins, J. R. Sedel and C. E. Cushing. 1980. The river continuum concept. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 37:130-137.

Visser, J. M., C. E. Sasser, R. G. Chabreck and R. G. Linscombe. 1998. Marsh vegetation types of the Mississippi River deltaic plain. Estuaries 21:818-828.

Waddington, J. M. and N. T. Roulet. 1997. Groundwater flow and dissolved carbon movement in a boreal peatland. Journal of Hydrology 191:122-138.

Walters, C., L. Gunderson and C. S. Holling. 1992. Experimental policies for water management in the Everglades. Ecological Applications 2:189-202.

Ward, J. V. and J. A. Stanford. 1995. The serial discontinuity concept: Extending the model to floodplain rivers. Regulated Rivers 10:1598.

Weinstein, M. P., J. H. Balletto, J. M. Teal and D. F. Ludwig. 1997. Success criteria and adaptive management for a large-scale wetland restoration project. Wetlands Ecology and Management 4:111-127.

Weinstein, M. P. and D. A. Kreeger, eds. 2000. International Symposium: Concepts and Controversies in Tidal Marsh Ecology. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, 864 pp.

White, D. A. 1993. Vascular plant community development on mudflats in the Mississippi River delta, Louisiana, USA. Aquatic Botany 45:171-194.

Winter, T. C. and M. R. Llamas, eds. 1993. Hydrogeology of Wetlands. Speci