Course Topics, Handouts and Readings for Each Topic


READINGS: Readings below include required readings for students in both WIS4554 and WIS5555c and additional required (and sometimes optional) readings for students in WIS5555c.

Readings are from textbook unless otherwise noted. Be sure to read the boxes (essays, case studies, etc.) within the assigned readings in the textbook. Links to the first few chapters of the textbook are provided in case you are not able to purchase the text book immediately. Please get the textbook as soon as possible so that you can keep up with the readings.

To access journal articles below, click on the pdf.

I would encourage all students to read all the literature provided. Included are classic papers that have had an important impact on the field of conservation biology and some studies that provide good examples of issues that we will discuss in class.

HANDOUTS: Please print handouts and bring to each lecture.

Introduction To Course: What Is Conservation Biology?

Handouts:

Lecture outline in question format


Required readings WIS4554/WIS5555c:

None


Additional required readings WIS5555c:

None


Interesting web links:

Society for Conservation Biology

Principles of Conservation Biology (3rd edition)


Pointer Back to Course Schedule


What Is Biodiversity? Why Preserve Biodiversity?

Handouts:

Lecture outline in question format

Terms you should already know -- Please review before lecture


Required readings WIS4554/WIS5555c:

Chapter 1. What is conservation biology? pp. 3-25.

Chapter 2. Global biodiversity. Importance of biodiversity. pp. 53-61.


Additional required readings WIS5555c:

Constanza, R. et al. 1997. The value of the world's ecosystem services and natural capital. Nature 387:253-260. .pdf

Balmford et al. 2002. Economic reasons for conserving wild nature. Science 297:950-953. .pdf

McCauley, D. J. 2006. Selling out nature. Nature 443:27-28. pdf

Redford, K. H. and W. M. Adams. 2009. Payment for ecosystem services and the challenge of saving nature. Conservation Biology. 23 (4): 785-787. .pdf


Optional readings:

Ezenwa et al. 2006. Avian diversity and West Nile virus: testing associations between biodiversity and infectious disease risk. Proceeding of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 273:109-117. .pdf


Interesting web links:

Earth Day Network - examine your ecological footprint!

US Population Clock

World Population Clock

Convention on Biological Diversity

Ecosystem Valuation


Pointer Back to Course Schedule


Vulnerability to Extinction and Rarity.

Handouts:

Lecture outline in question format

Example of application of Rabinowitz's classification of rarity to cats


Required readings WIS4554/5555c:

Chapter 2. Global biodiversity, pp. 27-62. You may omit Essay 2.1. We will read that later.

Chapter 3. Threats to biodiversity, pp. 63-109.


Additional required readings WIS5555c:

At least look over the Rabinowitz paper below. You may find the details a little tedious (unless you are interested in British plants). However, this is a very influential paper. This paper first pointed out the problem of rarity being defined in many different ways and redefined the way conservation biologists think about rarity. This paper stimulated analyses of rarity in many different ecosystems and with many different plant and animal groups. Notice that the paper is based on expert opinion not field data taken by the author!

Rabinowitz, D., S. Cairns, and T. Dillon. 1986. Seven forms of rarity and their frequency in the flora of the British Isles. Pages 182-204 in M.Soule, editor. Conservation Biology: the science of scarcity and diversity.pdf


Interesting web links:

SSC Red List - The International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) has developed a “Red” list of threatened and endangered species for countries throughout the world. This list has been influential in calling attention to the need for conservation of these species. Click on the Red List link and read through this webpage to get an idea of how the SSC Red List works.

Cat Specialist Group of Species Survival Commission. In addition to cats, IUCN has specialist groups for numerous other taxa (e.g., deer, tapirs, etc.).


Other interesting site related to endangered species:

Convention for International Trade in Endangered Species


Pointer Back to Course Schedule


Extinction Processes -- deterministic and stochastic

Handouts:

Lecture outline and table and figures

Additional overheads from Power Point lecture


Required readings WIS4554/WIS5555c:

Chapter 6. Habitat degradation and loss. pp. 173-197.

Chapter 12. Species and landscape approaches to conservation, pp. 419-424.

Essay 12.4. Landscape-level conservation for the sea, pp. 447-448. (Essay about penguin colony in Argentina that I will discuss in class.)

Grad students, if you have not had a course in conservation genetics, you also should read Chapter 11 in the book for background. If you wish, you may skip boxes 11.1 and 11.3. We will discuss effective population size (Box 11.2). You do not need to know the formulas for this class, but you should understand the concept.


Interesting web links:

Conservation International and WWF are two of the largest and most successful non-governmental conservation organizations working worldwide. Check out their programs focused on conserving biodiversity.


Pointer Back to Course Schedule


Spatially Structured Populations, Source-Sinks and Spatial Regulation of Wildlife Harvest in Temperate and Tropical Systems

Handouts:

Lecture outline in question format plus some overheads

Pseudosinks


Required readings WIS4554/WIS5555c:

Chapter 12. Source-sink concepts and their application to conservation, pp. 424-427.


Additional required readings WIS5555c:

This short article, which demonstrates the importance of protected areas (sources) for maintenance of sustainable harvest of wildlife in surrounding areas (sinks) in the tropics, has had a significant impact on management of wildlife harvest in the tropics. Management plans now routinely incorporate areas where hunting as prohibited to serve as a source for hunted areas. Surprisingly, very few of the studies reviewed in this article recognized the key role of protected areas in maintaining wildlife populations that were hunted.

Novaro, A.J. ,K.H. Redford and R.E. Bodmer. 2000. Effect of hunting in source-sink systems in the Neotropics. Conservation Biology 14: 713-720. .pdf


Interesting web links:

Check this site for information on Marine Protected Areas.


Pointer Back to Course Schedule


Metapopulations

Handouts:

Lecture outline in question format.

Diagrams of metapopulations.


Required readings WIS4554/WIS5555c:

Chapter 12. pp. 427-432; 440-444.


Interesting web links:

A Short Introduction to Metapopulation Models and GIS

This site was developed by authors of some of the most "user friendly" and widely used software for modeling metapopulations-- RAMAS software. Check out the link to RAMAS Metapop to learn more about the inputs and outputs of metapopulation models.

Metapopulation Research Group - This web page, from the University of Helsinki, Finland, is a rather technical but a fascinating site that provides information on metapopulation theory and research on many different topics related to metapopulations. The site was created by one of the most well-known research groups on metapopulations led by, Professor Ilkka Hanski. Check it out if you have time!


Pointer Back to Course Schedule


Population Viability Analysis/Minimum Viable Populations

Handouts:

Lecture outline in question format.


Required readings WIS4554/WIS5555c:

Chapter 12. Modeling approaches for prediction and conservation planning, pp. 432 and Essay 12.2.


Interesting web links:

A Short Introduction to PVA


Pointer Back to Course Schedule


Habitat Fragmentation and Edge

Handouts:

Lecture outline in question format.


Required readings WIS4554/WIS5555c:

Chapter 7. Habitat fragmentation, pp. 213-251.


Additional required readings WIS5555c:

The Laurance et al. papers present summaries of the results of the Biological Dynamics of Forest Fragments Project (BDFFP) in the Brazilian Amazon, which is the largest scale and longest-running experimental study of forest fragmentation. The 2011 paper is the most up-to-date, of course, but I really like the presentation of edge effects in the 2002 paper. I will use graphs from that paper in class. You might want to have a look.

Laurance, et al. 2011. The fate of Amazonian forest fragments: A 32-year investigation. Biological Conservation 144:56-67. pdf.


Optional reading:

Laurance, W.F., T.E. Lovjoy, H.L. Vasconcelos, E.M. Bruna, et al. 2002. Ecosystem decay of Amazonian forest fragments: a 22-Year Investigation. Conservation Biology 16: 605-618. .pdf


Interesting web links:

Missing Songbirds - Excellent site filled with important conservation information! The author is now an endowed professor at UF in the Museum of Natural History.


Pointer Back to Course Schedule


Ecosystem and Adaptive Management

Handouts:

Lecture outline in question format.


Required readings WIS4554/WIS5555c:

Chapter 13. Ecosystem approaches to conservation: responses to a complex world. pp.467-507.


Pointer Back to Course Schedule


Guest - Perran Ross, Department of Wildlife Ecology and Conservation, UF -"Conservation and Sustainable Use of Crocodiles"

Guest lecture questions and handouts:

Guest Lecture Questions


Perran Ross will argue that commercial exploitation of wildlife is one way to promote conservation. Your textbook presents many arguments regarding conservation problems associated with harvesting wildlife and other natural resources (e.g., tropical timber). Be prepared for a lively discussion!


Required readings WIS4554/WIS5555c:

Chapter. 8. Overexploitation, pp. 253-265,section on "Sustainable Use Meets Biodiversity (pp. 276-277), Essay 8.1, Essay 8.2 (pp. 270-271), Case study 8.1 pp. 278-280), Case study 8.2 (pp. 280-283),

If you are interested in tropical forests, read Case Study 8.3. (pp. 283-290). You may just skim the sections on "Biological Theory of Sustainable Exploitation" and "Comparisons of Methods for Calculating Sustainable Yields" (pp. 265-276). Hopefully you have covered this in other courses such as Population Ecology.


Pointer Back to Course Schedule


Diversity at the Community (alpha, beta, gamma diversity) and Ecosystem Levels and Indicator Species

Handouts:

Lecture outline in question format (alpha, beta, gamma diversity, indicator species, and focal species)


Required readings WIS4554/WIS5555c:

Review Chapter 2. Current patterns of species richness, pp. 41-43, and Box 2.1. The importance of beta diversity, pp. 44-45.


Additional required readings WIS5555c:

*These readings are for this lecture and the next

There is an enormous literature on topics related to indicators. Below are some of the classic papers that have had an important impact in this area.

Landres, P. B., J. Verner, and J. W. Thomas. 1988. Ecological uses of vertebrate indicator species: A critique. Conservation Biology 2(4):316-328. (This is a good review paper of problems with indicator species.).pdf

Noss, R.F. 1990. Indicators for monitoring biodiversity: A Hierarchical Approach. Conservation Biology 4:355-364..pdf

Lambeck, R. J. 1997. Focal species: a multi-species umbrella for nature conservation. Conservation Biology 11:849-856. .pdf

The paper by Lidenmayer et al. is a critique of the Lambeck approach. It points out numerous difficulties with using focal species.

Lindenmayer, D.B. et al. 2002. The focal-species approach and landscape restoration: A critique. Conservation Biology 16:338-345. .pdf

The following two papers are optional reading but you might want to have a look at them. I will discuss aspects of the Williams and Marcot analysis in class.

The paper by Williams and Marcot (1991) is an example of the hierarchical approach described by Noss (1990). This paper is interesting because the planning team carefully considers management goals before setting up indicators for the Klamath National Forest. They also choose some interesting indicators that have direct implications for management. For example, they use density of roads as a surrogate for invasive species because roads are known to influence rates of invasion. Logging practices strongly influence road density. The The TNC Viability Worksheet presents more detail on how TNC evaluates threats to species.

Williams, B. L. and B. G. Marcot. 1991. Use of biodiversity indicators for analyzing and managing forest landscapes. Transactions of the 56th North American Wildlife and Natural Resource Conference. Pp. 613-627. .pdf

The Nature Conservancy. Assessment of Target Viability Worksheet: Conservation Project Management Workbook Versions 3 (CAP) and 4. .pdf


Pointer Back to Course Schedule


Compositional, Structural, and Functional Diversity and Focal Species

Handouts:

Lecture outline in question format (part 2 - composition, structural, and functional diversity)

Examples of indicators for composition, structure, and function in a long leaf pine ecosystem

Klamath Forest Approach.


Required readings WIS4554/WIS5555c:

Essay 2.1. Hierarchical indicators for monitoring changes in biodiversity, pp. 28-29.


Pointer Back to Course Schedule


Keystone Species, Foundation Species, and Ecologically Effective Population Densities

Handouts:

Lecture outline in question format.

Types of keystones (overhead from class) Note: for all the different types of keystone species, the species has to have a greater impact than expected from its biomass to be classified as a keystone


Required readings WIS4554/WIS5555c:

Review Chapter 3. Indirect impacts of extinction on plant and animal communities (including Box 3.1), pp. 72-74.

Essay 12.3. Ecologically functional populations, pp. 435-438.

Sea otters are one of the most well-studied keystone species. The Estes et al. paper on killer whale predation is very interesting. They suggest that a cascade of events beginning with over-harvest of fish has led to increased predation by killer whales on sea otters, and because sea otters are a keystone species, this is resulting in major changes in the marine environment.

Estes, J.A., M.T. Tinker, T.M. Williams and D.F. Doak. 1998. Killer whale predation on sea otter linking oceanic and nearshore ecosystems. Science 282: 473-476. .pdf


Additional required readings WIS5555c:

If you plan to work with biological aspects of conservation, you should read the article by Power et al. below. This article is the classic paper that defined keystone species as we use the term now. If you plan to work more with the human aspects of conservation and only need a broad overview of keystone species and species interactions, you may wish to read one of the Soulé papers under optional reading instead.

Power et al. 1996. Challenges in the quest for keystones. Bioscience 46(8):609-620. .pdf

Other optional readings:

The Soule et al. articles discuss the need to consider ecological role of species in policy and conservation planning. They are thought provoking!

Soulé, M.E., J.A. Estes, J. Berger and C.M. del Río. 2003. Ecological effectiveness: conservation goals for interactive species. Conservation Biology 17:1238-1250. .pdf

Soulé, M.E., J.A. Estes, B. Miller, and D. L. Honnold. 2005. Strongly interacting species: Conservation policy, management, and ethics. Bioscience 55(2):168-176. .pdf

The article by Ellison et al. discusses impacts of loss of key tree species, such as eastern hemlock and American chestnut, from ecosystems. The article is easy to read and really interesting!

Ellison et al. 2005. Loss of foundation species: consequences for the structure and dynamics of forested ecosystems. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 3(9):479-486..pdf

Estes et al. 2011. Tropic downgrading of planet Earth. Science 33:3-1-306..pdf


Pointer Back to Course Schedule


Guest - Peter Frederick, Research Professor, UF Dept. of Wildlife Ecology and Conservation -- "Conservation of Wading Birds in a Southeastern Mosaic"

http://www.wec.ufl.edu/faculty/frederickp/

Guest lecture questions and handouts:

Guest Lecture Questions


Additional required readings WIS5555c:

Frederick, P.C., K.L. Bildstein, B. Fleury and J.Ogden. 1996. Conservation of large, nomadic populations of White Ibises (Eudocimus albus) in the United States. Conservation Biology 10:203-216..pdf

Frederick, P.C. and J.C. Ogden. 2001. Pulsed breeding of long-legged wading birds and the importance of infrequent severe drought conditions in the Florida Everglades. Wetlands 21:484-491...pdf


Other optional reading:

Frederick, P.C., S.M. McGehee, and M.G. Spalding. 1996. Prevalence of Eustrongylides ignotus in Mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki) in Florida: historical and regional comparisons. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 32: 552-555..pdf


Pointer Back to Course Schedule


Guest - Mark Cunningham, Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission -- "Conservation of the Florida panther and an overview of disease issues in conservation biology"

Guest lecture questions and handouts:

Guest Lecture Questions


Required readings WIS4554/WIS5555c:

Essay 3.2. Infectious disease and the conservation of biodiversity, pp. 67-68. (Chapter 3 of textbook).

Daszak, P., A. A. Cunningham and A.D.Hyatt. 2000. Emerging infectious diseases of wildlife - threats to biodiversity and human health. Science 287: 443-449. .pdf


Pointer Back to Course Schedule


Guest - Santiago Espinosa, UF Dept. of Wildlife Ecology and Conservation - "Yasuni National Park in Ecuador - Oil, Indigenous People, and Wildlife"

Guest lecture questions and handouts:

Guest Lecture Questions


Pointer Back to Course Schedule


Invasive Species

Handouts

Lecture outline in question format.


Required readings WIS4554/WIS5555c:

Chapter 9. Species invasions, pp. 293-331.


Additional required readings WIS5555c: None


All optional readings:

The paper below is a really nice evaluation of ecosystem impacts of invasive species and contains a summary of research questions that still need to be addressed.

Ehrenfeld, J. G. 2010. Ecosystem consequences of biological invasions. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics 41:59-80.

In class, I will discuss ecosystem level impacts of gypsy moths. These impacts are reported in the paper below and cited in the Ehrenfeld paper.

Clark, K. L., N. Skowronski, and J. Hom. 2010. Invasive insects impact forest carbon dynamics. Global Change Biology 16:88-101.


Interesting web links:

National strategy for dealing with invasive species - This site has a lot of information on invasive species, including the National Invasive Species Management Plan. Looking through the many links on this page will provide you with an overview of the enormous problem that introduced species have become and some national efforts aimed at dealing with these problems. Spend some time going through this for your own education!


Pointer Back to Course Schedule


Conservation Planning I. Global trends in protected areas, types of protected areas, limits to conservation within protected areas.

Handouts

Lecture outline in question format for Protected Areas Lecture 1.


Required readings WIS4554/WIS5555c:

Chapter 6. Habitat degradation and loss. pp. 197-212.

Chapter 14. Protected areas, pp. 511-551. (Read this chapter for the next 4 lectures.)


Pointer Back to Course Schedule


Conservation Planning II. Reserve selection and GAP analysis.

Handouts

Lecture outline in question format for Protected Areas Lecture 2


Required readingsWIS4554/WIS5555c:

See Conservation Planning I.


Interesting web links:

National GAP Analysis Program

Florida GAP Analysis Project


Pointer Back to Course Schedule


Conservation Planning III. MUMs, buffers, and landscape linkages.

Handouts

Other lecture outline to be posted or handed out in class.


Required readingsWIS4554/WIS5555c:

See Conservation Planning I.


Pointer Back to Course Schedule


Conservation Planning IV. Conservation on Private Land.

Handouts:

Other lecture outline to be posted or handed out in class.


Required readings WIS4554/WIS5555c:

See Conservation Planning I.